Myocardial Injury after Noncardiac Surgery and Perioperative Atrial Fibrillation From Evidence to Clinical Practice

Main Article Content

Flavia Borges
Sandra Ofori
Maura Marcucci

perioperative medicine, Myocardial injury, Atrial Fibrillation

Abstract

One in 60 patients who undergo major noncardiac surgery dies within 30 days following surgery. The most common cause is cardiac complications, of which myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery (MINS) and perioperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) are common, affecting about 18 and 11% of adults, respectively, after noncardiac surgery. Patients who suffer MINS are at a higher risk of death compared to patients without MINS. Similarly, patients who develop POAF are at a higher risk of stroke and death compared to patients who do not. Most patients who suffer MINS are asymptomatic, and its diagnosis is not possible without routine troponin monitoring. Observational studies support the use of statins and aspirin in the management of patients with MINS. The only randomized controlled trial to date that has specifically addressed the management of MINS was the MANAGE trial that demonstrated the efficacy and safety of intermediate dose dabigatran in this population. There are no specific prediction models for POAF and no randomised controlled trial evidence to guide the specific management of POAF. Management guidelines in the acute period follow the management of nonoperative atrial fibrillation. The role of long-term anticoagulation in this population is still uncertain and should be guided by a shared care decision model with the patient, and with consideration of the individual risk for stroke balanced against the risk of bleeding. In this review, we present a case-based approach to the detection, prognosis, and management of MINS and POAF based on the existing evidence.


RÉSUMÉ
Un patient sur 60 qui subit une intervention chirurgicale majeure non cardiaque meurt dans les 30 jours suivant l’opération. La cause la plus fréquente est celle des complications cardiaques, dont les lésions myocardiques après une chirurgie non cardiaque (LMCNC) et la fibrillation auriculaire périopératoire (FAPO) sont courantes et touchent respectivement environ 18 et 11 % des adultes après une chirurgie non cardiaque. Les patients présentant des LMCNC sont exposés à un risque plus élevé de décès que les patients qui ne présentent pas de LMCNC. De même, les patients chez qui on voit apparaître une FAPO ont un risque plus élevé d’accident vasculaire cérébral et de décès que ceux qui ne connaîtront pas cette complication. La plupart des patients atteints de LMCNC sont asymptomatiques, et il est impossible d’établir un diagnostic sans surveiller régulièrement la troponine. Des études d’observation appuient l’utilisation des statines et de l’aspirine dans la prise en charge des patients atteints de LMCNC. À ce jour, le seul essai contrôlé randomisé qui s’est penché précisément sur le traitement des LMCNC est l’essai MANAGE qui a démontré l’efficacité et l’innocuité du dabigatran à dose intermédiaire chez cette population. Il n’existe aucun modèle de prédiction précis pour la FAPO ni aucune donnée probante provenant d’essais contrôlés randomisés pour orienter précisément son traitement. Les lignes directrices concernant la prise en charge au cours de la période aiguë suivent celles de la prise en charge de la fibrillation auriculaire non liée à une opération. Le rôle de l’anticoagulation à long terme chez cette population est encore incertain et devrait être guidé par un modèle de prise de décision partagée avec le patient et tenir compte du risque individuel d’accident vasculaire cérébral par rapport à celui d’hémorragie. Dans cette revue, nous présentons une approche fondée sur des cas pour la détection, le pronostic et le traitement des LMCNC et de la FAPO sur la base des données probantes existantes.

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