COVID-19: A Comprehensive Overview

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Hira Amir
Ally Prebtani


Coronaviruses are important pathogens reported in humans and animals. A novel coronavirus, formally known as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was identified as a cause of pneumonia cases in Wuhan, China, in late 2019. Since its outbreak in China, it has disproportionately affected many countries. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was officially declared a pandemic on March 11, 2020 and remains a global concern. A spectrum of disease severity has been reported with a variable course of illness from mild upper respiratory symptoms, pneumonia to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), shock, multiorgan dysfunction and death. The worldwide dissemination of the virus justifies the global efforts in identifying potential treatment strategies and a vaccine for improved clinical and long-term outcomes. This article will reflect on human viral replication and transmission, variable clinical presentation, assessment, treatment and discussion of complications. Isolation precautions according to infection prevention and control including protective apparel will be discussed with emphasis on criteria for discontinuation of transmission precaution.

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